Please note the position of QEXL/Q-UEL consortium of universities and small companies in regard to underlying theoretical principles of clinical decision support.
Robson, B. and Boray, S. “Implementation of a web based universal exchange and inference language for medicine. Sparse data, probabilities and inference in data mining of clinical data repositories”. Computers in Biology and Medicine (in press, preprint downloadable http://www.computersinbiologyandmedicine.com/article/S0010-4825(15)00257-7/abstract)
Robson, B., Caruso, T, and Balis, U. G. J. (2014) “Suggestions for a Web Based Universal Exchange and Inference Language for Medicine. Continuity of Patient Care with PCAST Disaggregation. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 56: 51–66. “We describe here the applications of our recently proposed Q-UEL language to continuity of patient care between physicians, specialists and institutions as mediated via the Internet, giving examples derived from HL7 CDA and VistA of particular interest to workflow. Particular attention is given to the Universal Exchange Language for healthcare as requested by the US President׳s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) released in December 2010, especially in regard to disaggregation of the patient record on the Internet…”
Robson, B. (2014) “ Hyperbolic Dirac Nets for Medical Decision Support. Theory, Methods, and Comparison with Bayes Nets” Computers in Biology and Medicine, in 2014 Aug;51:183-97. “We recently introduced the concept of a Hyperbolic Dirac Net (HDN) for medical inference on the grounds that, while the traditional Bayes Net (BN) is popular in medicine, it is not suited to that domain: there are many interdependencies such that any "node" can be ultimately conditional upon itself. A traditional BN is a directed acyclic graph by definition, while the HDN is a bidirectional general graph closer to a diffuse "field" of influence. Cycles require bidirectionality; the HDN uses a particular type of imaginary number from Dirac׳s quantum mechanics to encode it. Comparison with the BN is made alongside a set of recipes for converting a given BN to an HDN, also adding cycles that do not usually require reiterative methods. This conversion is called the P-method. Conversion to cycles can sometimes be difficult, but more troubling was that the original BN had probabilities needing adjustment to satisfy realism alongside the important property called "coherence". The more general and simpler K-method, not dependent on the BN, is usually (but not necessarily) derived by data mining, and is therefore also introduced. As discussed, BN developments may converge to an HDN-like concept, so it is reasonable to consider the HDN as a BN extension.”
Deckelman, S., and Robson, B. (2014). “Split-Complex Numbers and Dirac Bra-Kets”, Vol. 14:3, 135-149, Communications in Information and Systems (CIS).
Robson, B. (2014) “POPPER, a Simple Programming Language for Probabilistic Semantic Inference in Medicine.” Computers in Biology and Medicine, 56: 107-23 “Our previous reports described the use of the Hyperbolic Dirac Net (HDN) as a method for probabilistic inference from medical data, and a proposed probabilistic medical Semantic Web (SW) language Q-UEL to provide that data. Rather like a traditional Bayes Net, that HDN provided estimates of joint and conditional probabilities, and was static, with no need for evolution due to "reasoning". Use of the SW will require, however, (a) at least the semantic triple with more elaborate relations than conditional ones, as seen in use of most verbs and prepositions, and (b) rules for logical, grammatical, and definitional manipulation that can generate changes in the inference net. Here is described the simple POPPER language for medical inference. It can be automatically written by Q-UEL, or by hand. Based on studies with our medical students, it is believed that a tool like this may help in medical education and that a physician unfamiliar with SW science can understand it. It is here used to explore the considerable challenges of assigning probabilities, and not least what the meaning and utility of inference net evolution would be for a physician.”
Robson, B., Caruso, T, and Balis, U. G. J. (2013)”Suggestions for a Web Based Universal Exchange and Inference Language for Medicine”, Computers in Biology and Medicine,1;43(12):2297-310.